This Companion presents an authoritative and up to date review of Roman Republican background because it is at present practiced.

  • Highlights fresh advancements, together with archaeological discoveries, clean techniques to textual assets, and the hole up of recent components of old study
  • Retains the drama of the Republic’s upward push and fall
  • Emphasizes not only the facts of texts and actual is still, but additionally the types and assumptions that students carry to those artefacts
  • Looks on the position performed by way of the actual geography and atmosphere of Italy
  • Offers a compact yet targeted narrative of army and political advancements from the beginning of the Roman Republic via to the demise of Julius Caesar
  • Discusses present controversies within the field

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Purcell 1990: 7–29, esp. 14–20. Cic. Rep. 1. 31, three. forty-one (Italians and Latins); App. B Civ. 1. 19 (Italians). Crawford 1996b: no. 1. Mattingly 1969. Illustrations in Crawford 1996b: pl. 1, figs 1–2. Sherwin-White 1982: 19. Skillful research in Sherwin-White 1982: 19–28. ILLRP 515; Gordon 1983: no. 15. Pobjoy 1998. Pobjoy 1997: 86. A damnatio memoriae? Or is there a extra blameless rationalization? Crawford 1996b: no. 7 (Latin), no. thirteen (Oscan). Crawford 1996b: 1. 274. Pobjoy 2000b. Crawford 1996b: no. forty. The bars are usually now known as ‘‘aes signatum’’ and the forged cash as ‘‘aes grave,’’ even though this doesn't correspond to the traditional use of those phrases. The bars seem to have had a weight average of approximately 5 Roman kilos (Burnett 1987: 3). For the reason, Burnett 1987: 6. be aware, even though, that the designs at the forged coinage have been Greek in proposal (Burnett 1987: 16). In different phrases, the steel of the coin was once itself worthy essentially not anything (by distinction with the forged bronze coins): the sort of coin had worth due to its acceptability for trade, which depended primarily at the energy of the authority which issued it. Mark Pobjoy seventy nine 33 Crawford 1974: no. 1 (Neapolitan bronze), no. 2 (second bronze issue), no. thirteen (first silver). the 1st silver was dated a little later (hence the later quantity in Crawford): see Burnett 1978, 1989; Crawford 1985: 29. 34 Map in Burnett 1987: 2. 35 Meadows and Williams 2001. 36 Burnett and Crawford 1987. 37 normally, Crawford 1974: 2. 569–89. References to ‘‘obverse’’ and ‘‘reverse’’ dies accordingly pertain to the placement of the dies in the course of extraordinary, to not the notional ‘‘heads’’ or ‘‘tails’’ of a coin. it isn't continuously a simple topic to spot which used to be the obverse and which the opposite die, and it's rather attainable that those are mislabeled at times. 38 Crawford 1974: 2. 672. 39 replacement view in Burnett 1977: 37–44. forty Crawford 1974: 1. 562 n. three. such a lot surviving dies are most likely forgers’ dies. forty-one those have been the decussis, quincussis, tressis, and dupondius (10, five, three, and a couple of asses, respectively); and the dextans, dodrans, bes, and quincunx (10, nine, eight, and five unciae, respectively). For the victoriatus, Crawford 1974: 628–30. forty two Duncan-Jones 1994: 77–8. forty three Burnett 1987: 8–10. forty four Crawford 1969: 1–6. forty five Crawford 1974: 1. 105–17, 1985: 336–7. forty six Crawford 1974: 1. 28–35. forty seven On such blunders, Burnett 1987: 10–11. forty eight Crawford 1974: no. 359/2 (84–3): opposite view in Martin 1989; Mackay 2000. forty nine Crawford 1974: nos. 367–8. 50 Hollstein 2000a: 489–90, 2000b: 136. steel research confirms the argument. The research of die-axes additionally indicates that one other factor of Sulla (Crawford 1974: no. 375) was once most likely minted open air Italy, prior to eighty one. fifty one Burnett 1998: 168; Pobjoy 2000b: 198 with n. 37. fifty two Burnett and Crawford 1987: 176–7. fifty three Howgego 1992: 16–22; Crawford 1970. fifty four Howgego 1992: 28–9. fifty five Badian 1972a: 76–7. fifty six Equating one expertise with 6,000 denarii (Crawford 1974: 1. 33). See extra Howgego 1994 on coin circulate within the empire as a complete during this and later sessions. fifty seven Howgego 1992: 22–8.

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