This quantity examines the impact that Epicureanism and Stoicism, philosophies of nature and human nature articulated in the course of classical instances, exerted at the improvement of eu idea to the Enlightenment. even though the effect of those philosophies has frequently been famous in sure components, akin to the impact of Stoicism at the improvement of Christian notion and the effect of Epicureanism on sleek materialism, the chapters during this quantity ahead a brand new understanding of the measure to which those philosophies and their endured interplay proficient eu highbrow existence good into early smooth occasions. The effect of the Epicurean and Stoic philosophies within the components of literature, philosophy, theology, and technology are thought of. Many thinkers proceed to understand those philosophies as major choices for realizing the human and ordinary worlds. Having develop into included into the canon of philosophical possible choices, Epicureanism and Stoicism persevered to exert identifiable affects on clinical and philosphical notion a minimum of till the center of the eighteenth century.
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Additional resources for Atoms, Pneuma, and Tranquillity: Epicurean and Stoic Themes in European Thought
In line with the Epicureans, worry of the gods and of punishment in lifestyles after loss of life is the executive explanation for psychological misery. for you to dispel this worry, and thereby reach tranquillity, they built a philosophy of nature which defined all traditional phenomena, in addition to the human soul, when it comes to probability collisions between atoms relocating via void house. They relegated the gods to a beatified life, a long way faraway from the average and human worlds, and denied that the soul survives the physique at loss of life. The Stoics claimed equivalent significance for common sense, physics, and ethics. For them, tranquillity is to be attained basically in a lifetime of cause enough to itself and in concord with the normal order. not like the Epicureans, although, their proposal of the cosmos was once one in every of divine and practical layout (Logos) of which humanity is a component. either faculties notion that questions about good judgment - cause and human wisdom - have been heavily concerning physics and ethics. The Epicureans accounted for wisdom when it comes to sensations, the motives of which have been defined via their atomic idea and the results of which incorporated the excitement and soreness that supplied the basis in their hedonistic ethics. The Stoics addressed questions in common sense, and common sense, for them, consisted of a concept of information in keeping with an exact succession of psychological routines. the correct self-discipline of one's cause protects the human brain from blunders, either in its realizing of the realm and in its look for ethical habit. in contrast to Plato and Aristotle, whose writings have survived the centuries, not anything has come right down to us of the philosophical works of the traditional Greek Stoics other than a number of fragments, and from Epicurus we've in simple terms 3 letters and a few maxims. The restoration of a physique of doctrine for those colleges has been sluggish and piecemeal. prior to the revival of classical studying within the 15th and 16th centuries, wisdom of them was once mostly constrained to Latin assets, really ones licensed of via early Christian apologists, fathers of the church, and medieval moralists, who pillaged pagan classics for his or her personal reasons. If one seems to be at this primary, prehumanist degree, one reveals that Epicureanism, which denied divine windfall, present and punishment after loss of life, and the immortality of the soul, was once looked with horror. Epicurean ethics, with its aim of delight (hedone), Cambridge Books on-line © Cambridge collage Press, 2009 4 Margaret J. Osier and Letizia A. Panizza interpreted incorrectly as unrestrained sensuality, was once deemed bestial: Our smooth note "hedonism" nonetheless consists of those damaging connotations. there's almost no facts that Lucretius used to be learn in any respect (only 4 ninth-century manuscripts survive),4 and extremely little used to be gleaned from Cicero's discussions of either colleges in philosophical dialogues resembling his Tusculans, De jinibus, De natura deorum, and, to a lesser quantity, De fato. (An educational skeptic, Cicero favorite the Stoics, rather on moral matters, on which he attacked the Epicureans.