By Duane W. Roller

Few personalities from classical antiquity are extra famous--yet extra poorly understood--than Cleopatra VII, queen of Egypt. during this significant biography, Duane curler finds that Cleopatra used to be actually a discovered and visionary chief whose overarching target used to be constantly the maintenance of her dynasty and nation.
Roller's authoritative account is the 1st to be established exclusively on basic fabrics from the Greco-Roman interval: literary resources, Egyptian files (Cleopatra's personal writings), and representations in artwork and coinage produced whereas she used to be alive. His compelling portrait of the queen illuminates her prowess as a royal administrator who controlled a wide and various country extending from Asia Minor to the internal of Egypt, as a naval commander who led her personal fleet in conflict, and as a student and supporter of the humanities. Even her amorous affairs with Julius Caesar and Marcus Antonius--the resource of her attractiveness as a very best seductress who drove males to their doom--were rigorously crafted kingdom guidelines: she selected those companions to insure the procreation of successors who will be worthwhile of her unusual dynasty. That Cleopatra eventually misplaced to her Roman competitors, curler contends, under no circumstances diminishes her abilities.

"Roller tells his story easily and accessibly....The ensuing portrait is that of a posh, many-sided determine, a effective Hellenistic ruler who may perhaps movement the tillers of energy as skillfully as any guy, and one some distance and nobly faraway from the 'constructed icon' of well known imagination."
--The manhattan occasions ebook Review

"A wealthy account of overdue Ptolemaic culture."
--The New Yorker

"Offers a great landscape of the society and tradition of overdue Ptolemaic Egypt, with brilliant sketches of the (remarkably energetic) highbrow lifetime of Cleopatra's Alexandria and the structural instabilities of the overdue Ptolemaic state."
--Times Literary Supplement

"Besides delivering a compelling tale and respiring clean air right into a heretofore two-dimensional cartoon from heritage, Roller's 'Cleopatra' offers an engaging observation at the attitudes nonetheless conventional in the direction of girls who rule."
--Christian technological know-how Monitor

"Compulsively readable."

"A definitive account of a queen of outstanding strength."
--Publishers Weekly

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Simply because Octavia couldn't accompany Antonius to warfare, she remained in Italy as he went to Antioch. ahead of lengthy he despatched his legate C. Fonteius Capito to Egypt to request the presence of Cleopatra. even though the resources current a love-struck Antonius surrendering his greater instincts to the wiles of the queen, this used to be hardly ever the case. to be certain, the absence of Octavia used to be a comfort, yet queen and triumvir had wishes for every different that weren't in simple terms own. Herod had resolved his civil battle, and this intended that he used to be now an important hazard to Cleopatra’s goals. Antonius’s assets have been insufficient for his drawing close Parthian excursion, and the queen may well help in this. She arrived in Antioch in overdue 37 b. c. together with her three-year-old twins, whom their father had by no means visible. It used to be most likely at the moment that they obtained their surnames Helios and Selene, a guideline of grandiose plans by means of the fogeys, probably as but no longer nonetheless totally shaped. five In Antonius’s ongoing reorganization of the East, which concerned the redistribution of determine 7. View of Antioch from Daphne. Courtesy of Duane W. curler. ninety Cleopatra many territories and the institution of numerous new kingdoms with rulers pleasant to Rome, Cleopatra used to be the transparent winner. The preparations made completely sturdy feel despite any own courting among queen and triumvir: Cleopatra was once the single validated ruler of the jap Mediterranean. Herod had simply secured his throne, and all of the others have been petty dynasts with constrained territories. furthermore, the benefit with which Brutus and Cassius have been in a position to disrupt the Roman governments of the sector could have prompt to Antonius extra compact Roman presence used to be the higher selection, with huge components less than the keep an eye on of indigenous royalty beholden to Rome. hence Antonius proven a community of pleasant states governed through new dynasties that he basically created, usually bypassing the present claimants. In Galatia, the relevant a part of Asia Minor, Rome’s lengthy best friend Deiotaros had supported Brutus and Cassius yet had now not but been punished while he died evidently in forty b. c. Antonius gave his country and surrounding territories to his secretary Amyntas, who survived until eventually 25 b. c. 6 To the north was once the dominion of Pontos, the place a definite Polemon used to be put on the throne after the handy loss of life of King Dareios. Polemon turns out to have had no reference to any indigenous royalty, and his father, Zenon, used to be a rhetorician. ultimately Polemon might marry into royalty, first through marriage ceremony Dynamis after which Pythodoris, the latter a granddaughter of none except Antonius. Polemon survived till the decade of the 1st century b. c. ; his widow, Pythodoris, might rule on my own until eventually she married the 3rd of Antonius’s pleasant kings, Archelaos of Kappadokia. 7 Archelaos additionally got here from outdoors confirmed royalty, even though it is feasible that he was once relating to Mithradates the good. one in all his credentials, possibly a minor one, used to be the non-public dating Antonius had had along with his mom Glaphyra, however the triumvir used to be too astute to base kingship in this on my own, and Archelaos’s skills and lineage have been what led to his placement at the throne of Kappadokia while he expelled the king, Ariarathes X.

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