By James F. Kurose
&>Computer Networking keeps with an early emphasis on application-layer paradigms and alertness programming interfaces (the best layer), encouraging a hands-on adventure with protocols and networking options, earlier than operating down the protocol stack to extra summary layers.
This ebook has develop into the dominant booklet for this direction as a result authors’ reputations, the precision of clarification, the standard of the artwork software, and the worth in their personal supplements.
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Additional info for Computer Networking: A Top-Down Approach (6th Edition)
Five renowned web purposes, their application-layer protocols, and their underlying delivery protocols determine 2. five shows the shipping protocols utilized by a few well known web functions. We see that e mail, distant terminal entry, the net, and dossier move all use TCP. those purposes have selected TCP basically simply because TCP offers trustworthy facts move, making certain that each one info will ultimately get to its vacation spot. simply because net telephony purposes (such as Skype) can frequently tolerate a few loss yet require a minimum expense to be potent, builders of net telephony functions frequently wish to run their functions over UDP, thereby circumventing TCP’s congestion regulate mechanism and packet overheads. yet simply because many firewalls are configured to dam (most different types of) UDP site visitors, web telephony purposes frequently are designed to exploit TCP as a backup if UDP verbal exchange fails. 2. 1. five Application-Layer Protocols we now have simply realized that community procedures converse with one another through sending messages into sockets. yet how are those messages established? What are the meanings of a few of the fields within the messages? whilst do the approaches ship the messages? those questions deliver us into the world of application-layer protocols. An application-layer protocol defines how an application’s techniques, working on varied finish structures, go messages to one another. particularly, an application-layer protocol defines: • the kinds of messages exchanged, for instance, request messages and reaction messages • The syntax of some of the message forms, reminiscent of the fields within the message and the way the fields are delineated 2. 1 • rules OF community functions • The semantics of the fields, that's, the which means of the data within the fields • principles for deciding upon whilst and the way a procedure sends messages and responds to messages a few application-layer protocols are laid out in RFCs and are for this reason within the public area. for instance, the Web’s application-layer protocol, HTTP (the HyperText move Protocol [RFC 2616]), is on the market as an RFC. If a browser developer follows the principles of the HTTP RFC, the browser should be capable of retrieve web content from any internet server that has additionally the foundations of the HTTP RFC. Many different application-layer protocols are proprietary and deliberately no longer on hand within the public area. for instance, Skype makes use of proprietary application-layer protocols. you will need to distinguish among community functions and application-layer protocols. An application-layer protocol is just one piece of a community software (albeit, an important piece of the appliance from our viewpoint! ). Let’s examine a number of examples. the net is a client-server software that enables clients to acquire records from net servers on call for. the net program involves many elements, together with a regular for record codecs (that is, HTML), internet browsers (for instance, Firefox and Microsoft net Explorer), net servers (for instance, Apache and Microsoft servers), and an application-layer protocol.