By Richard P. Feynman, Robert B. Leighton
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Additional resources for Six Easy Pieces: Essentials of Physics Explained by Its Most Brilliant Teacher
We make an electron gun which is composed of a tungsten cord heated via an electrical present and surrounded via a steel field with a gap in it. If the twine is at a destructive voltage with admire to the field, electrons emitted via the twine could be sped up towards the partitions and a few will go through the opening. all of the electrons which pop out of the gun may have (nearly) an identical strength. In entrance of the gun is back a wall (just a skinny steel plate) with holes in it. past the wall is one other plate with the intention to function a “backstop. ” In entrance of the backstop we position a movable detector. The detector can be a geiger counter or, probably larger, an electron multiplier, that's hooked up to a loudspeaker. we should always say instantly that you can now not try and manage this scan (as you may have performed with the 2 we now have already described). This test hasn't ever been performed in exactly this manner. the difficulty is that the gear must be made on an impossibly small scale to teach the results we're drawn to. we're doing a “thought experiment,” which now we have selected since it is simple to contemplate. we all know the consequences that might be received simply because there are numerous experiments which were performed, within which the dimensions and the proportions were selected to teach the consequences we will describe. the very first thing we realize with our electron test is that we listen sharp “clicks” from the detector (that is, from the loudspeaker). And all “clicks” are an analogous. There aren't any “half-clicks. ” we'd additionally detect that the “clicks” come very unevenly. whatever like: click on ..... click-click ... click on ..... click on .... click-click ...... click on ... , and so on. , simply as you will have, without doubt, heard a geiger counter working. If we count number the clicks which arrive in a sufficiently lengthy time—say, for lots of minutes—and then count number back for one more equivalent interval, we discover that the 2 numbers are pretty much an analogous. in order to communicate of the common price at which the clicks are heard (so-and-so-many clicks in line with minute at the average). determine 6-3 Interference test with electrons. As we movement the detector round, the speed at which the clicks look is quicker or slower, however the measurement (loudness) of every click on is often an analogous. If we decrease the temperature of the cord within the gun the speed of clicking slows down, yet nonetheless every one click on sounds an analogous. we might become aware of additionally that if we positioned separate detectors on the backstop, one or the opposite may click on, yet by no means either instantaneously. (Except that after shortly, if there have been clicks very shut jointly in time, our ear will possibly not feel the separation. ) We finish, as a result, that no matter what arrives on the backstop arrives in “lumps. ” the entire “lumps” are an analogous dimension: simply entire “lumps” arrive, they usually arrive one by one on the backstop. we will say: “Electrons continuously arrive in exact lumps. ” simply as for our scan with bullets, we will now continue to discover experimentally the reply to the query: “What is the relative likelihood that an electron ‘lump’ will arrive on the backstop at quite a few distances x from the guts?