By Elaine Graham-Leigh
The Albigensian campaign was once referred to as by way of Pope blameless III in 1208 opposed to the count number of Toulouse in line with the homicide of the papal legate Pierre des Castelnau. The Pope's target used to be to strength the count number and different nobles in Languedoc to do so opposed to the Cathar heretics of their lands, yet after all, the defeat of Catharism within the south of France was once completed throughout the institution of the Inquisition and the extension of French royal authority to the world. whereas a few Occitan noble households survived the campaign, others have been destroyed and the behaviour of the crusaders in the direction of the neighborhood the Aristocracy has usually been considered as particularly arbitrary, unconnected to how those households relating to one another earlier than 1209. This learn takes the case of the Trencavel Viscounts of Béziers and Carcassonne, who have been the single contributors of the better the Aristocracy to lose their lands to the campaign, and argues that an knowing of ways the Occitan the Aristocracy fared within the campaign years needs to be established within the context of the politics of the noble society of Languedoc, not just within the 13th century but in addition within the 12th. ELAINE GRAHAM-LEIGH received her Ph.D. from the collage of London.
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Extra resources for The Southern French Nobility and the Albigensian Crusade
P. xxi. 173 Guillaume de Puylaurens, creation, p. eight. 174 Dossat, ‘Guillaume de Puylaurens’, p. 349; Sibly and Sibly, Guillaume de Puylaurens, advent, p. xxiii. 169 a hundred and seventy 40 The Southern French the Aristocracy and the Albigensian campaign one other later author who it appears that evidently supported the campaign was once Caesarius of Heisterbach. This Cistercian monk on the abbey of Heisterbach integrated in his Dialogus Miraculorum, began in round 1221, a quick account of the Albigensian campaign, focusing relatively at the sack of Béziers in 1209. one hundred seventy five This passage is the resource of 1 of the main well-known anecdotes bobbing up from the campaign, the directions given to the crusaders via Arnauld Amaury, Abbot of Cîteaux and papal legate, at the catch of Béziers: ‘Realising from their confessions that there have been Catholics in among the heretics, they stated to the Abbot “Lord, what lets do? we can't inform the nice from the undesirable. ” The Abbot, fearing much more than that the heretics can be spared than that they need to faux, out in their nice worry of demise, to be Catholics, after which afterwards after they had left go back back to their evil, is reputed to have acknowledged “Kill all of them. The Lord shall understand his personal. ” ’176 Caesarius seems to be to were rather drawn to the trap of Béziers, devoting extra recognition to it than to the query of heresy usually. 177 considering he had no discernible connection to both Béziers or to Languedoc, it'd be effortless to brush off his account, compared to extra neighborhood assets of data, as faulty and ill-informed. even though, Caesarius’ account of the sack of Béziers will be tremendous useful for the background of the Albigensian campaign, because it represents the Cistercian point of view, that of the Cistercian papal legates and, particularly, of Arnauld Amaury. The originality of Caesarius’ anecdotes relating Béziers, Arnauld Amaury’s remark and the casting of the Gospel from the partitions of the city via the heretics,178 means that he had varied resources of knowledge from the opposite authors who defined the sack, and makes it not likely that he used a written account, similar to that of Pierre des Vaux, as his exemplar. it's been regarded that Caesarius didn't use solely written assets for the Dialogus Miraculorum, but additionally made use of anecdotes and tales that have been informed in his monastery. 179 For any Cistercian condo, the yearly Cistercian normal bankruptcy was once an immense resource of knowledge and gossip, the ‘meeting position for tales from in all places Europe’. one hundred eighty It doesn't look unreasonable to imagine that the Abbot of Heisterbach might have introduced again such tales from the bankruptcy, and, certainly, at numerous issues within the Dialogus Caesarius of Heisterbach, Dialogus Miraculorum, ed. J. unusual, 2 vols. (Cologne 1851), vol. 1, pp. 300–3. 176 Ibid. , p. 302: ‘Cognoscentes ex confessionibus illorum catholicos cum haereticis esse permixtos, dixerunt Abbati: Quid faciemus, domine? Non possumus discernere inter bonos et malos. instances tam Abbas quam reliqui ne tantum timore mortis se catholicos simularent et put up ipsorum abcessum iterum advert perfidiam redirent, fertur dixisse: Caedite eos.